Implementing Micro-Frontends for Scalable Web Architecture

This tutorial is all about understanding and implementing micro-frontends, which is an innovative approach towards efficiently organizing and scaling frontend codebases. We'll discuss the concept, advantages, possible drawbacks and learn how to apply this architecture style to your web development projects.

What are Micro-Frontends?

Micro-frontends are an architectural style that aims to extend the idea of microservices to the frontend world, wherein frontend components are broken down into smaller, independent units, allowing multiple teams to work on them seamlessly. This enables better organization, maintainability, and scalability of web applications.

Why Micro-Frontends?

Modern web development is growing rapidly, and frontend developers need to work on increasingly complex, feature-laden web applications. Using monolithic frontend codebases can lead to several difficulties, such as consistency issues, slow development speed, and poor maintainability. This is where micro-frontends can help save the day by structuring frontend code more efficiently and accommodating multiple development teams.

Key Advantages of Micro-Frontends:

  • Faster development cycles
  • Better scalability and maintainability
  • Focused codebases
  • Independent deployments
  • Flexible technology stacks

Possible Drawbacks of Micro-Frontends:

  • Code duplication
  • Complexity of implementation
  • Integration challenges

Implementing Micro-Frontends

There is no one-size-fits-all approach when it comes to implementing micro-frontends, but some best practices can be followed to make the integration process smoother. The following steps outline a typical path to implementing micro-frontends.

1. Identify the domain and component boundaries

Break down your web application into smaller, logical units, or domains. Each domain should ideally be owned by a single team with all the necessary knowledge related to the domain. From there, identify the individual components that belong to each domain.

2. Establish a communication mechanism

Since different frontend components interact with each other frequently, it's crucial to have a clear communication mechanism in place. This could include events, an API, or a shared datastore.

3. Choose a composition method

Compose the micro-frontends together in the application using one of the following methods:

  • Build-time integration
  • Run-time integration with server-side composition
  • Client-side composition

4. Implement continuous integration/continuous delivery (CI/CD)

Set up a CI/CD process that allows independent deployment of the individual micro-frontends using tools like Jenkins, CircleCI, or GitHub Actions.

5. Coordinate design and user experience

Ensure a consistent user experience across the application by sharing common design elements such as fonts, styles, and components across the entire codebase.

Communication in Micro-Frontends

Micro-frontends need effective communication between individual components, ensuring they stay up-to-date with the shared state. An understanding of the different communication patterns is necessary to choose the best fitting one for each case.

Direct communication

componentA.on('click', (e) => {

While direct communication can be simple and easy for small applications, it can easily result in tightly-coupled code, creating potential maintainability issues.

Indirect communication

const EventBus = new EventEmitter();

// Subscribe to event
componentA.on('click', (e) => {
EventBus.emit('componentA:clicked', e);

// Listen for event
EventBus.on('componentA:clicked', (e) => {

An event-driven approach, where components emit and react to events, helps in maintaining loose coupling between components.


Micro-frontends offer an innovative method of organizing and scaling frontend codebases for modern web applications. This architectural style has several advantages, like maintainability and scalability, but also brings potential challenges, such as code duplication and integration complexity. Proper implementation of micro-frontends can result in faster development cycles, independent deployments and flexible technology stacks, ultimately leading to more efficient and robust web applications.