Creating Immersive Parallax Scrolling Effects with CSS and JavaScript |

Creating Immersive Parallax Scrolling Effects with CSS and JavaScript

Parallax scrolling is a popular web design technique that creates an illusion of depth by moving background images slower than foreground content. This technique can add a sense of immersion and dynamism to your website, making it stand out from the competition. In this tutorial, we will explore how to achieve parallax scrolling effects using CSS and JavaScript, resulting in a visually rich and dynamic user experience.


Before we start, you should have a basic understanding of:

  • HTML and CSS (preferably with some experience in positioning and transforms)
  • JavaScript (basic DOM manipulation and event handling)

Creating the HTML Structure

First, let's set up a basic HTML structure with a container and some elements. These elements will be our parallax layers. For this tutorial, we will have a text layer and an image layer, but you can apply this technique to any number of layers.

<div class="parallax-container">
  <div class="parallax-layer parallax-image"></div>
  <div class="parallax-layer parallax-text">Welcome to our website!</div>

Styling the Layers with CSS

Next, let's style the container and the layers. We must position the container and its layers using CSS. We will use relative positioning for the container and absolute positioning for the layers. This allows us to control the position of the layers independently of their container. Additionally, set the perspective and overflow properties to achieve the desired parallax effect. Here's the basic CSS:

.parallax-container {
  position: relative;
  height: 100vh;
  overflow: hidden;
  perspective: 1px;

.parallax-layer {
  position: absolute;
  top: 0;
  left: 0;
  right: 0;
  bottom: 0;

.parallax-image {
  background-image: url("path/to/your/image.jpg");
  background-size: cover;
  background-position: center;
  transform: translateZ(-1px) scale(2);

.parallax-text {
  font-size: 3em;
  text-align: center;
  padding-top: 40%;
  transform: translateZ(0) scale(1);

In this example, we set the perspective property to 1px, creating a subtle parallax effect. The translateZ and scale transforms control the apparent depth and size of the layers. Experiment with these values to achieve different parallax depths and scaling effects.

Adding JavaScript for Dynamic Parallax Scrolling

Now it's time to bring the parallax scrolling effect to life with JavaScript. We will create a function that modifies the position of the layers based on the scroll position of the page. First, let's attach an event listener to the window's scroll event:

window.addEventListener("scroll", onScroll);

Next, create the onScroll function. In this function, we will calculate the scroll position relative to the container and update the position of each parallax layer. We will use the getBoundingClientRect method to get the position of the container:

function onScroll() {
  const containerRect = document.querySelector('.parallax-container').getBoundingClientRect();
  const scrollY = -containerRect.y;

  const layers = document.querySelectorAll('.parallax-layer');

  layers.forEach(layer => {
    const depth = parseFloat(\((-?\d+(\.\d+)?)px\)/)[1]);
    const translateY = scrollY * (1 - 1 / (depth + 1)); = `translateY(${translateY}px)`;

This function calculates the position of each layer based on its depth (defined in the CSS transforms). For example, a layer with a depth of -1px will move at half the speed of the scroll, creating the parallax effect. You can adjust the depth values in the CSS to create more or less pronounced parallax effects.


In this tutorial, you have learned how to create immersive parallax scrolling effects using CSS and JavaScript. This technique can be applied to various scenarios, such as creating dynamic hero sections, image galleries, or interactive storytelling experiences. Experiment with different layer types, depths, and perspectives to create unique and engaging user experiences on your website.

Keep exploring CSS and JavaScript techniques to take your web development skills to the next level. Make sure to check out other articles and tutorials on to enhance your knowledge and improve your projects!